Understanding the Role of Nucleotide Sequences in mRNA

Understanding the Role of Nucleotide Sequences in mRNA


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  • Source: Microbioz India

  • Date: 31 Jan,2024

Hence, the sequence of nucleotides in DNA dictates the gene expression or nucleotide sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA). Thus, a genetic code is carried by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which functions as the genetic blueprint of an organism and comprises directives for protein synthesis. The mechanism by which information from DNA is utilized to produce mRNA is known as transcription.

Key considerations regarding the function of mRNA in relation to nucleotide sequences are as follows:


  1. The process starts with transcription, where a particular section of DNA acts as an outline through which mRNA can be synthesized.
  2. RNA polymerase reads the template strand of DNA and constructs an mRNA molecule.
  3. The nucleotide sequence in mRNA corresponds with that on the template DNA strand; adenine (A)inDNApairswithuracil(U)in RNA while cytosine(C)in DNA match esguanine(G)in RNA.

Coding for Amino Acids:

  1. The mRNAs are read off three bases at a time called codons.
  2. Each codon implies either a specific amino acid to be added or it might signify a starting or stopping point for protein synthesis.
  3. There are 64 codons that correspond to different proteins’ 20 amino acids and three termination signals found on them while synthesizing proteins.


  1. mRNAs head out of nucleus after transcription into cytoplasm where they are read by ribosomes, biochemical machines responsible for making proteins according to mRNAs’ base sequence.
  2. tRNAs (transfer RNAs) bring amino acids corresponding to each mRNA codon at ribosome site during translation
  3. Amino acids are combined together by ribosomes according to order specified by this RNA messages within their polypeptide chains, which later fold up into functional proteins.

Genetic Code:

  1. Genetic code is shown in the mRNA nucleotide sequence, which represents rules for translating DNA information into protein language.
  2. The genetic code is universal in that most organisms have the same codons for the same amino acids; this provides a common platform for the most basic process of protein synthesis.

Finally, it can be said that the sequence of nucleotides in mRNA has an essential role to perform in terms of how cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis translates genetic information from DNA. In cytoplasm, it acts as a template guiding assembly of amino acid polypeptides into proteins, according to the genetic code.

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