Understanding the Diverse Ecosystems of the Atlantic Ocean

Understanding the Diverse Ecosystems of the Atlantic Ocean


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  • Source: Microbioz India

  • Date: 13 Jan,2024

The Atlantic Ocean, constituting a substantial landmass and bearing importance for global climate and biodiversity, ranks as the second largest ocean globally. These span the spectrum from illuminated surface waters to the ominous depths of the abyssal zone.

This article shall provide an overview of the diverse ecosystems that are present within the Atlantic Ocean:

Atmospheric Waters:

Pelagic Zone: It is called the pelagic zone when you go below this surface and it becomes open ocean water where enough light for photosynthesis can penetrate. The uppermost part of Pelagic region (epipelagic) supports life by being habitat to many marine organisms such as phytoplanktons, zooplankton, fish, and marine mammals.

Ecosystems of the Coast:

  1. Intertidal zones are geographical regions situated between high and low tide, where organisms with the ability to thrive in both marine and terrestrial environments are found.
  2. The neritic zone is distinguished by its abundant marine life and productive shallow waters that extend above the continental margin. Within this zone are coral reefs, seagrass beds, and kelp forests, among other species.

Deep Sea Ecosystems:

  1. Bathyal Zone: This zone spans from the continental shelf edge to abyssal plain and has little light. Fishes like different types of squids and other inhabitants in deep sea locate themselves here
  2. Abyssal Zone: This zone occurs at depths below 6000 m on abyssal plain where there are harsh conditions such as high pressure, low temperatures, limited food supply etc. hence deep-sea creatures like angler fish or giant squid have adapted to live under such conditions.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge:

A submerged range across the middle of Atlantic Ocean that splits it into eastern and western basins. Mid-Atlantic Ridge has hydrothermal vent ecosystems supporting extremophiles adapted to high temperatures and chemical-rich environments.

Sargasso Sea:

A North Atlantic region with calm waters devoid of coastal boundaries whatsoever is Sargasso Sea known for its accumulations of Sargassum seaweed that host different species of marine life.

Migration Routes:

Whales, sharks, turtles and fish are among the species that pass through the Atlantic Ocean; it is an important corridor for their migratory process. These migrations routes are important to them in their life cycles thereby contributing to overall biodiversity of the sea.

Human Impact:

The various ecosystems of the Atlantic Ocean are significantly affected by human activities such as overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Coral reefs are highly susceptible to bleaching through temperature rise occasioned by global warming.

It is important to understand and protect diverse ecosystems in Atlantic Ocean so as to have a healthy planet’s oceans and sustainable marine life. To preserve biodiversity and ecological balance in the Atlantic Ocean, it is necessary that conservation efforts, responsible fishing practices and global cooperation be put in place.

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