The Significance of RNA Polymerase in Protein Synthesis

The Significance of RNA Polymerase in Protein Synthesis


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  • Source: Microbioz India

  • Date: 02 Dec,2023

RNA polymerase converts DNA to mRNA during the production of proteins. Transcription and translation are the two processes involved in protein synthesis. Messenger RNA (mRNA) ribonucleotides are used by RNA polymerase to read DNA and create a complimentary copy during transcription.

Significance of RNA Polymerase in Protein Synthesis

Transcription of mRNA:

  1. Transcription starts when RNA polymerase binds to a gene’s promoter.
  2. The DNA acts as the template for synthesizing RNA that is complementary.
  3. The mRNA then takes the genetic code from nucleus to cytoplasm where proteins are synthesized.

Genetic Code Transfer:

  1. It follows that the order of nucleotides in an mRNA corresponds to the genetic code.
  2. This genetic code specifies the exact amino acid sequence in which the protein will be built.

Ribosome Interaction:

  1. The mRNA leaves the nucleus and joins ribosomes present in cytoplasm.
  2. Which read three letter nucleotide groupings called codons on mRNA.

Translation Initiation:

  1. The initiation signal of translation is provided by a start codon on the mRNA.
  2. tRNA molecules carrying specific amino acids attach themselves to corresponding codons on the mRNA.

Elongation of Polypeptide Chain:

  1. The RNA molecule keeps growing while ribosomes move along it.
  2. Due to this, tRNA molecules supply amino acids that cause polypeptide chain elongation.

Termination of Translation

  1. Translation goes on till a stop codon is reached at mRNA.
  2. Consequently, this causes release of the complete polypeptide chain from ribosome.

Protein Folding and Function:

  1. New polypeptide chains synthesized fold up becoming functional three dimensional structures.
  2. The folded proteins assume specific functions in cells like enzymatic reactions, signaling, or structural support.

Regulation of Gene Expression

  1. Levels of transcription carried out by RNA polymerase are closely controlled thereby determining amount produced MRNA. this regulation ensures that only certain proteins are made within cells depending on their needs

In conclusion, biology shows how important and crucial RNA Polymerase is for turning the genes in DNA into mRNA. This process is important for the diversity of function and structure that proteins have and they are responsible for all cellular functions and activities in living organisms at large.

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