How are viruses different from bacteria at the apex?

How are viruses different from bacteria at the apex?


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  • Source: Microbioz India

  • Date: 26 Sep,2023

Bacteria and viruses are two different categories of microorganisms, and they differ significantly in a number of key ways.

Biological Classification:

  1. Viruses are not considered living entities because they lack the cellular structure and metabolic processes that are characteristic of live cells. They are basically genetic material (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a protein covering.
  2. Bacteria are prokaryotic, single-celled creatures. They are classified as living entities since they have cells with identifiable nuclei and can perform a variety of metabolic functions.


  1. Viral particles are extremely tiny in comparison to bacterial cells. They typically fall between 20 and 300 nm in terms of size.
  2. Bacteria are larger, typically measuring between 0.5 and 5 micrometers (m).

Cellular Structure:

  1. DNA or RNA and protein make up viruses, which are devoid of organelles, cell walls, and membranes. They lack structures found in cells.
  2. The cellular structure of bacteria includes organelles, cytoplasm, a cell wall, and a cell membrane.


  1. Viruses are unable to multiply on their own. To reproduce, they must infect a host cell and take control of the cell’s biological machinery.
  2. Bacteria can divide into two identical daughter cells in a process known as binary fission, which allows them to reproduce on their own.


  1. The metabolic mechanisms in viruses are absent. They don’t perform cellular processes like growth, respiration, or other.
  2. Bacteria have metabolic functions and are able to produce energy through a variety of mechanisms, including respiration, photosynthesis, and fermentation.


  1. Viruses: Antiviral drugs are frequently used to treat viral infections. Vaccines can shield against viral diseases as well.
  2. Bacteria: Antibiotics, which target particular metabolic functions or bacterial structures, are frequently used to treat bacterial illnesses.


  1. Viruses: Viral disorders including the common cold, influenza, HIV, and COVID-19 are all brought on by viruses.
  2. Bacteria: Bacteria can also lead to illnesses like strep throat, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis.

In conclusion, the structure, reproduction, and metabolic activity of viruses and bacteria are fundamentally dissimilar. For the diagnosis and management of diseases brought on by either microbe, it is essential to comprehend these differences.

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